Pulmonary Disease Examination And Board Review (Pulmonary Medicine) [VERIFIED] Free Download
Here are the NCLEX practice questions for respiratory system disorders. This nursing test bank set includes 220 NCLEX-style practice questions that cover nursing care management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, pleural effusion, and other respiratory system disorders. Use these questions to help you review for the respiratory system disorders and as an alternative to Quizlet.
Pulmonary Disease Examination and Board Review (Pulmonary Medicine) free download
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is confirmed by a spirometry test,which measures how much and how quickly a person can blow air out of theirlungs. Symptoms can be treated through medical and physical treatments;however, with COPD in people who smoke tobacco, the most effective treatmentavailable is to stop smoking. This can slow down the progression of the diseaseand decrease COPD-related deaths. In specific cases, people may benefit from usinginhaled corticosteroid medicines.
The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in apparently immune-competent people is increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic review of the published literature on five-year all-cause mortality in patients with MAC lung disease, and pooled the mortality rates to give an overall estimate of five-year mortality from these studies.
In conclusion, our structured literature review has identified 17 data sets reporting five-year mortality in patients with NTM-PD caused by MAC. Most (i.e. ten) document a five-year mortality rate greater than 25% [12, 14, 15, 20, 21, 23,24,25], indicating a poor prognosis for patients with MAC lung disease and a need for more effective management of the condition. Substantial heterogeneity in study characteristics was found, with male sex, presence of cavitary disease and high comorbidity levels predicting worse survival outcomes. Further prospective studies using appropriately matched controls may contribute to a better understanding of long-term survival in MAC-related pulmonary disease.
I hope you enjoy this free audio component to the examination portion of this site. The full pulmonology review includes over 142 pulmonology specific questions and is available to all members of the PANCE and PANRE Academy.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) represent over 190 species and subspecies, some of which can produce disease in humans of all ages and can affect both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sites. This guideline focuses on pulmonary disease in adults (without cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus infection) caused by the most common NTM pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium xenopi among the slowly growing NTM and Mycobacterium abscessus among the rapidly growing NTM. A panel of experts was carefully selected by leading international respiratory medicine and infectious diseases societies (ATS, ERS, ESCMID, IDSA) and included specialists in pulmonary medicine, infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, laboratory medicine, and patient advocacy. Systematic reviews were conducted around each of 22 PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions and the recommendations were formulated, written, and graded using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. Thirty-one evidence-based recommendations about treatment of NTM pulmonary disease are provided. This guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients with NTM pulmonary disease, including specialists in infectious diseases and pulmonary diseases.
The SERPINA1 gene encodes the serine protease inhibitor alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) and is located on chromosome 14q31-32.3 in a cluster of homologous genes likely formed by exon duplication. AAT has a variety of anti-inflammatory properties. Its clinical relevance is best illustrated by the genetic disease alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) which is associated with an increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cirrhosis. While 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) , S and Z, are responsible for more than 95% of all individuals with AATD, there are a number of rare variants associated with deficiency and dysfunction, as well as those associated with normal levels and function. Our laboratory has identified a number of novel AAT alleles that we report in this manuscript. We screened more than 500,000 individuals for AATD alleles through our testing program over the past 20 years. The characterization of these alleles was accomplished by DNA sequencing, measurement of AAT plasma levels and isoelectric focusing at pH 4-5. We report 22 novel AAT alleles discovered through our screening programs, such as Zlittle rock and QOchillicothe, and review the current literature of known AAT genetic variants.
Chronic cough is experienced by most patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It is often the first symptom and is associated with reduced quality of life, increased rates of depression and anxiety, more severe physiological impairment, and disease progression. Although not fully understood, recent gains in understanding the pathophysiology of chronic cough in IPF have been made. The pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and includes alterations in mucous production and clearance, architectural distortion, and increased cough reflex sensitivity, suggesting a role for targeted therapies and multidisciplinary treatment. Modifiable comorbidities can also induce cough in patients with IPF. There is a renewed emphasis on measuring cough in IPF, with clinical trials of novel and repurposed therapies for chronic cough emerging in this population. This review provides an update on the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and measurement of chronic cough in patients with IPF and summarizes recent developments in non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies.